Table of Contents

1UPSC Syllabus 2020-2021: For IAS Prelims and Mains Examination
What is the importance of syllabus in UPSC Exam?
How to download UPSC syllabus
How to download UPSC syllabus from UPSC website
2UPSC Syllabus 2020
3UPSC Prelims Syllabus
UPSC Prelims Syllabus Paper I – General Studies
UPSC Prelims Syllabus Paper II – Aptitude Test
4UPSC Mains Syllabus
UPSC Mains Syllabus: Qualifying Papers on English & any Indian Languages
UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper I – Essay
UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper II – General Studies-I
UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper III -General Studies-II
UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper IV -General Studies-III
UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper V -General Studies-IV
5UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper VI & Paper VII – Optional Subjects
UPSC Sociology (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Anthropology (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Mathematics (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Geography (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Economics (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Law (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC History (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Psychology (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Political Science and International Relations (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Agriculture (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Botany (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Chemistry (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Civil Engineering (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Commerce and Accountancy (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Electrical Engineering (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Geology (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Management (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Mechanical Engineering (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Medical Science (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Philosophy (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Physics (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Public Administration (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Statistics (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC Zoology (optional) Syllabus Paper – I & Paper – II
6UPSC IES Syllabus
UPSC IES Prelims Syllabus Paper 1 – General Studies and Engineering Aptitude
UPSC IES Syllabus for Civil Engineering Domain Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC IES Syllabus for Mechanical Engineering Domain Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC IES Syllabus for Electrical Engineering Domain Paper – I & Paper – II
UPSC IES Syllabus for Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Domain Paper – I & Paper – II
7UPSC CAPF Syllabus
UPSC CAPF Syllabus Paper I – General Ability & Intelligence
UPSC CAPF Syllabus Paper – II General Studies, Essay & Comprehension



UPSC Syllabus 2020-2021: For IAS Prelims and Mains Examination


Preparation is the key to success in every examination, but preparation without a strategy is aimless, especially for the most challenging exams like UPSC civil services. Perfect insight of UPSC syllabus is crucial for the strategic preparation of the Civil services examination. UPSC syllabus is the roadmap for aspirants to become a provident in the Prelims and Mains examination. It allows one to have an understanding of what to read, what not to read, and what the sources that one needs to refer to. A better understanding of the UPSC syllabus keeps the aspirant from being wandered through unwanted topics and wasting time.


What is the importance of syllabus in UPSC Exam?


The fundamental step towards the victory of any examination is the absolute knowledge of the foundation on which the whole process is building, and that is its syllabus. Knowing the syllabus is even more important for the competitive UPSC civil services examination, as it is the most prestigious and toughest examination in the country.


A thorough understanding of the UPSC syllabus is a prerequisite for conquering the UPSC exam successfully; Vedhik IAS Academy has compiled the entire UPSC syllabus considering the civil service aspirants who are in search for the UPSC syllabus.


The UPSC exam, which is conducted in different stages, has a different and comprehensive syllabus for each stage. Each and every score per section is capable of determining the fate of your civil services dream, but the best thing is that the questions behind those scores can only arise from the topics covered entirely in the UPSC syllabus. Therefore, studying with determination and strenuous exertion focused on the UPSC syllabus will pave the way for the accomplishment of your civil service aspirations.


How to download UPSC syllabus


Civil service aspirants can download the UPSC syllabus from the UPSC official website, or you can discover the full UPSC syllabus for prelims and mains right here by scrolling through this page.


How to download UPSC syllabus from UPSC website


Here is the step by step guide to download UPSC Civil Services syllabus

  • Go to the official website of UPSC that is
  • On the Homepage, click on the “Active Examinations” option from the drop-down list under “Examination” menu.
  • Click on the “Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, 2020” link available on the new page, and then you will be redirected to a new window.
  • Click on the link “Notice” given next to the “Download notification”, a new tab will be open with full details of civil services exam including the whole UPSC syllabus.
  • To download the complete UPSC syllabus, click on the top right download button.


UPSC Syllabus 2020

The UPSC syllabus is quite prodigious with a lot of diverse subjects, the first and foremost task of which is to bring it under your control. A deeper understanding of the syllabus will save you valuable time and bring you more proximate to the goal.


UPSC Civil Services Exam is conducted in three stages:

• Preliminary examination (Objective Type)

• Main exam (Written Test)

• Personality Test (Interview).


As soon as you start preparing for the UPSC exam, you should go through the proper UPSC syllabus of each stage, as the syllabus for Prelim and Mains is very vast and different, but many topics are interrelated.


UPSC Prelims Syllabus


The Prelims, the introductory stage in the UPSC civil services Examination, set out as a screening test to qualify for the main examination. The UPSC Prelims Syllabus places great emphasis on current affairs and aptitude testing. The UPSC Prelims syllabus comprises two compulsory and qualifying papers– General Studies and the Civil Service Aptitude Test.


UPSC Prelims Syllabus Paper I – General Studies

  • Current Events of National and International Importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.
  • General Science.


UPSC Prelims Syllabus Paper II – Aptitude Test

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal Skills including Communication Skills.
  • Logical Reasoning and Analytical Ability.
  • Decision Making and Problem Solving.
  • General Mental Ability.
  • Basic Numeracy (Numbers and their Relations, Orders of Magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data Interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. — Class X level).


UPSC Mains Syllabus

The UPSC Main Examination syllabus is predominantly outlined to evaluate the candidate’s proficiency in his/her academic expertise subjects as well as to check the dexterity of the aspirants to present the descriptive smoothly in a concise and orderly fashion. The UPSC Mains syllabus comprises 9 papers of the conventional essay type including two qualifying papers.


UPSC Mains Syllabus: Qualifying Papers on English & any Indian Languages

The two qualifying papers intend to test the candidate’s proficiency in English and the respective Indian language and also the ability to express the ideas in an unambiguous and concise manner.


Exam Questions on these two papers follows the below pattern:

  • Comprehension passages
  • Precis Writing
  • Usage and Vocabulary
  • Short Essays
  • Translation from English to concerned Indian Language and vice-versa


UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper I – Essay


In this Essay part, the question paper may consist of multiple topics from which the candidates may be required to write essays on more than one topic. Focus on succinct writing and be coherent throughout in topic is the best way to score better.


UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper II – General Studies-I


  • Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society
  • Indian culture: Salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history: Significant events, personalities and issues from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present.
  • The Freedom Struggle: Various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence: Consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world: Events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. — their forms and effect on the society.
  • Indian Society: Salient features, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Globalization: Effects on Indian society.
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • World’s physical geography: Salient features
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Geophysical phenomena: Earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.


UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper III -General Studies-II


  • Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations
  • Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions
  • Indian constitutional scheme: Comparison with that of other countries.
  • Parliament and State legislatures: Structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Representation of People’s Act: Salient features
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry: The role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and their structure, mandate.


UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper IV -General Studies-III


  • Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management
  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops: Cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India: Scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology: Developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.


UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper V -General Studies-IV


Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behavior; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
    Case Studies on above issues.


UPSC Mains Syllabus: Paper VI & Paper VII – Optional Subjects


Paper VI & Paper VII for the UPSC Main Examination are two papers of an optional subject which can be chosen by the candidates based on his/her interest and academic background. Choosing the right optional subject will lead you to better chances of success, and you will be able to pick the opportune subject with an in-depth understanding of the syllabus. The UPSC Mains syllabus provides a list of 26 Optional Subjects.


UPSC Sociology (optional) Syllabus


Paper I – Fundamentals of sociology


Sociology – The Discipline: Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology, Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences , Sociology and common sense
Sociology as Science: Science, scientific method and critique, Major theoretical strands of research methodology, Positivism and its critique, Fact value and objectivity, Non-positivist methodologies.
Research Methods and Analysis: Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity, Techniques of data collection, Qualitative and quantitative methods.
Sociological Thinkers: Karl Marx – Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle; Emile Durkhteim – Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society; Max Weber – Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism; Talcolt Parsons – Social system, pattern variables; Robert K. Merton – Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups; Mead – Self and identity.
Stratification and Mobility: Concepts – equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation, Theories of social stratification – Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory, Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race, Social mobility – open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
Works and Economic Life: Social organization of work in different types of society – slave society, feudal society, industrial capitalist society, Formal and informal organization of work, Labour and society.
Politics and Society: Sociological theories of power; Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties; Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology; Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
Religion and Society: Sociological theories of religion; Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults; Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.
Systems of Kinship: Family, household, marriage, Types and forms of family, Lineage and descent, Patriarchy and sexual division of labour, contemporary trends.
Social Change in Modern Society: Sociological theories of social change, Development and dependency, Agents of social change, Education and social change, Science, technology and social change.

UPSC Sociology (optional) Syllabus


Paper II – Indian society: structure and change


Introducing Indian Society:
Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society: Indology (G.S. Ghure), Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas), Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai)
Impact of colonial rule on Indian society: Social background of Indian nationalism, Modernization of Indian tradition, Protests and movements during the colonial period, Social reforms.
Social Structure:
Rural and Agrarian Social Structure: The idea of Indian village and village studies, Agrarian social structure— evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
Caste System: Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille; Features of caste system, Untouchability-forms and perspectives
Tribal Communities in India: Definitional problems, Geographical spread, Colonial policies and tribes, Issues of integration and autonomy.
Social Classes in India: Agrarian class structure, Industrial class structure, Middle classes in India.
Systems of Kinship in India: Lineage and descent in India, Types of kinship systems, Family and marriage in India, Household dimensions of the family, Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.
Religion and Society: Religious communities in India, Problems of religious minorities
Social Changes in India:
Visions of Social Change in India: (a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy. (b) Constitution, law and social change. (c) Education and social change.
Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India: (a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes. (b) Green revolution and social change. (c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture. (d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
Industrialization and Urbanisation in India: (a) Evolution of modern industry in India. (b) Growth of urban settlements in India. (c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization. (d) Informal sector, child labour. (e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
Politics and Society: (a) Nation, democracy and citizenship. (b) Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite. (c) Regionalism and decentralization of power. (d) Secularization.
Social Movements in Modern India: (a) Peasants and farmers movements. (b) Women’s movement. (c) Backward classes & Dalit movements. (d) Environmental movements. (e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.
Population Dynamics: (a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution. (b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration. (c) Population Policy and family planning. (d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
Challenges of Social Transformation: (a) Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability. (b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities. (c) Violence against women. (d) Caste conflicts. (e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism. (f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.


UPSC Anthropology (optional) Syllabus Paper I

1.1 Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology.

1.2 Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:

(a) Social-cultural Anthropology.

(b) Biological Anthropology.

(c) Archaeological Anthropology.

(d) Linguistic Anthropology.

1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man:

(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.

(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).

(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).

1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.

1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:

(a)Plio-preleistocene hominids in South and East Africa—Australopithecines.

(b)Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus (heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.

(c) Neanderthal man—La-chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).

(d) Rhodesian man.

(e) Homo saoiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.

1.7 The biological basis of Life: The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.

1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods.

(b) Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:

(i) Paleolithic

(ii) Mesolithic

(iii) Neolithic

(iv) Chalcolithic

(v) Copper-Bronze Age

(vi) Iron Age

2.1 The Nature of Culture: The concept and Characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural Relativism.

2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institution; Social groups; and Social stratification.

2.3 Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Type of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).

2.4 Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.

2.5 Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation;Decent and Alliance.

3. Economic Organization: Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.

4. Political Organization and Social Control: Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple Societies.

5. Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant Societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico-religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).

6. Anthropological theories:

(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)

(b) Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism (British, German and American)

(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural—Functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)

(d) Structuralism (L’evi-Strauss and E. Leach)

(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora-du Bois)

(f) Neo—evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)

(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)

(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)

(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)

(j) Post-modernism in anthropology.

7. Culture, Language and Communication: Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social contex of language use.

8. Research methods in Anthropology:

(a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology

(b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology

(c) Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.

(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

9.1 Human Genetics: Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies. 9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.

9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.

9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).

(b) Sex chromosomal aberration- Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.

(c)Autosomal aberrations- Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.

(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.

9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker:ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-ecomomic groups.

9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology: Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non-genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases, Nutritional deficiency related diseases.

10. Concept of human growth and Development: Stages of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.

—Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.

—Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations

—Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.

11.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.

11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

12. Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthroplogy in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthroplogy, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics—Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology


UPSC Anthropology (optional) Syllabus Paper II


1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization—Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Pre-Harappan, Harappan and post-Harappan cultures. Contributions of the tribal cultures to Indian civilization.

1.2 Palaeo—Anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).

1.3. Ethno-archaeology in India: The concept of ethno-archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.

2. Demographic profile of India—Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population—factors influencing its structure and growth.

3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system—Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.

3.2 Caste system in India— Structure and characteristics Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system. Tribe-case continuum.

3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.

3.4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity of Indian society.

4. Emergence, growth and development in India—Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.

5.1 Indian Village—Significane of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.

5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.

5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati Raj and social change; Media and Social change.

6.1 Tribal situation in India—Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.

6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities—Land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, under- employment, health and nutrition.

6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and industrialization on tribal populations.

7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.

7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies: Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.

7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.

8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.

8.2 Tribe and nation state—a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.

9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.

9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.

9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.


UPSC Mathematics (optional) Syllabus Paper I


(1) Linear Algebra:

Vector spaces over R and C, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimensions, Linear transformations, rank and nullity, matrix of a linear transformation.

Algebra of Matrices; Row and column reduction, Echelon form, congruence’s and similarity; Rank of a matrix; Inverse of a matrix; Solution of system of linear equations; Eigen values and eigenvectors, characteristic polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Symmetric, skew-symmetric, Hermitian, skew-Hermitian, orthogonal and unitary matrices and their eigen values.

(2) Calculus:

Real numbers, functions of a real variable, limits, continuity, differentiability, mean-value theorem, Taylor’s theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maxima and minima, asymptotes; Curve tracing; Functions of two or three variables; Limits, continuity, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange’s method of multipliers, Jacobian.

Riemann’s definition of definite integrals; Indefinite integrals; Infinite and improper integral; Double and triple integrals (evaluation techniques only); Areas, surface and volumes.

(3) Analytic Geometry:

Cartesian and polar coordinates in three dimensions, second degree equations in three variables, reduction to Canonical forms; straight lines, shortest distance between two skew lines, Plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties.

(4) Ordinary Differential Equations:

Formulation of differential equations; Equations of first order and first degree, integrating factor; Orthogonal trajectory; Equations of first order but not of first degree, Clairaut’s equation, singular solution.

Second and higher order liner equations with constant coefficients, complementary function, particular integral and general solution.

Section order linear equations with variable coefficients, Euler-Cauchy equation; Determination of complete solution when one solution is known using method of variation of parameters.

Laplace and Inverse Laplace transforms and their properties, Laplace transforms of elementary functions. Application to initial value problems for 2nd order linear equations with constant coefficients.

(5) Dynamics and Statics:

Rectilinear motion, simple harmonic motion, motion in a plane, projectiles; Constrained motion; Work and energy, conservation of energy; Kepler’s laws, orbits under central forces.

Equilibrium of a system of particles; Work and potential energy, friction, Common catenary; Principle of virtual work; Stability of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three dimensions.

(6) Vector Analysis:

Scalar and vector fields, differentiation of vector field of a scalar variable; Gradient, divergence and curl in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates; Higher order derivatives; Vector identities and vector equation.

Application to geometry: Curves in space, curvature and torsion; Serret-Furenet’s formulae.

Gauss and Stokes’ theorems, Green’s identities

UPSC Mathematics (optional) Syllabus Paper II

(1) Algebra: Groups, subgroups, cyclic groups, cosets, Lagrange’s Theorem, normal subgroups, quotient

groups, homomorphism of groups, basic isomorphism theorems, permutation groups, Cayley’s theorem.

Rings, sub rings and ideals, homomorphism of rings; Integral domains, principal ideal domains, Euclidean domains and unique factorization domains; Fields, quotient fields.

(2) Real Analysis:

Real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property; Sequences, limit of a sequence, Cauchy sequence, completeness of real line; Series and its convergence, absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms, rearrangement of series. Continuity and uniform continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact sets.

Riemann integral, improper integrals; Fundamental theorems of integral calculus.

Uniform convergence, continuity, differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions; Partial derivatives of functions of several (two or three) variables, maxima and minima.

(3) Complex Analysis:

Analytic function, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, power series, representation of an analytic function, Taylor’s series; Singularities; Laurent’s series; Cauchy’s residue theorem; Contour integration.

(4) Linear Programming:

Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and optimal solution; Graphical method and simplex method of solutions; Duality.

Transportation and assignment problems.

(5) Partial Differential Equations:

Family of surfaces in three dimensions and formulation of partial differential equations; Solution of quasilinear partial differential equations of the first order, Cauchy’s method of characteristics; Linear partial differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients, canonical form; Equation of a vibrating string, heat equation, Laplace equation and their solutions.

(6) Numerical Analysis and Computer Programming:

Numerical methods: Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection, Regula-Falsi and Newton-Raphson methods, solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jorden (direct), Gauss-Seidel (iterative) methods. Newton’s (forward and backward) and interpolation, Lagrange’s interpolation.

Numerical integration: Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule, Gaussian quadrature formula.

Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: Eular and Runga Kutta methods.

Computer Programming: Binary system; Arithmetic and logical operations on numbers; Octal and Hexadecimal Systems; Conversion to and from decimal Systems; Algebra of binary numbers.

Elements of computer systems and concept of memory; Basic logic gates and truth tables, Boolean algebra, normal forms.

Representation of unsigned integers, signed integers and reals, double precision reals and long integers.

Algorithms and flow charts for solving numerical analysis problems.

(7) Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics:

Generalised coordinates; D’Alembert’s principle and Lagrange’s equations; Hamilton equations; Moment of inertia; Motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions.

Equation of continuity; Euler’s equation of motion for in viscid flow; Stream-lines, path of a particle; Potential flow; Two-dimensional and axisymmetric motion; Sources and sinks, vortex motion; Navier-Stokes equation for a viscous fluid.


UPSC Geography (optional) Syllabus Paper I – Principles of geography


Physical Geography:

(1) Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.

(2) Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.

(3) Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.

(4) Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

(5)Environmental Geography: Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography:

(1)Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development indix.

(2)Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.

(3)Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

(4)Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

(5)Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: System analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.


UPSC Geography (optional) Syllabus Paper II – Geography of India


(1)Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.

(2)Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

(3)Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.

(4)Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector under kings; Industrial regionalization; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.

(5)Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline net works and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.

(6)Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, interregional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

(7)Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban development’s; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; Town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.

(8)Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

(9)Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

(10)Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

UPSC Economics (optional) Syllabus Paper I

1. Advanced Micro Economics:

(a) Marshallian and Varrasiam Approaches to Price determination.
(b) Alternative Distribution Theories; Ricardo, Kaldor, Kaleeki.
(c) Markets Structure: Monopolistic Competition, Duopoly, Oligopoly.
(d) Modern Welfare Criteria: Pareto Hicks and Scitovsky, Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem, A. K. Sen’s Social Welfare Function.

2. Advance Macro Economics:

Approaches to Employment Income and Interest Rate determination: Classical, Keynes (IS)-LM) curve, Neo-classical synthesis and New classical, Theories of Interest Rate determination and Interest Rate Structure.

3. Money-Banking and Finance:

(a) Demand for and Supply of Money: Money Multiplier Quantity Theory of Money (Fisher, Pique and Friedman) and Keyne’s Theory on Demand for Money, Goals and Instruments of Monetary Management in Closed and Open Economies. Relation between the Central Bank and the Treasury. Proposal for ceiling on growth rate of money.

(b) Public Finance and its Role in market Economy: In stabilisation of supply, allocative, of resources and in distribution and development. Sources of Government revenue, forms of Taxes and Subsidies, their incidence and effects. Limits to taxation, loans, crowding-out effects and limits to borrowings. Public expenditure and its effects.

4. International Economics:

(a) Old and New theories of International Trade.

(i) Comparative advantage,
(ii) Terms of Trade and Offer Curve.
(iii) Product Cycle and Strategic Trade Theories.
(iv)Trade as an engine of growth and theories of underdevelopment in an open economy

(b) Forms of Protection: Tariff and quota.

(c) Balance of Payments Adjustment: Alternative Approaches.

(i) Price versus income, income adjustments under fixed exchange rates.
(ii) Theories of Policy Mix.
(iii) Exchange rate adjustments under capital mobility.
(iv) Floating Rates and their Implications for Developing Countries: Currency Boards.
(v) Trade Policy and Developing Countries.
(vi) BOP, adjustments and Policy Coordination in open economy macro model.
(vii) Speculative attacks.
(viii) Trade Blocks and Monetary Unions.
(ix) WTO: TRIMS, TRIPS, Domestic Measures, Different Rounds of WTO talks.

5. Growth and Development:

(a) (i) Theories of growth: Harrod’s model;
(ii) Lewis model of development with surplus labour.
(iii) Balanced Unbalanced Growth.
(iv) Human Capitals and Economic Growth.
(v) Research and Development and Economic Growth.

(b) Process of Economic Development of less developed courtries: Myrdal and Kuzments on economic development and structural change: Role of Agriculture in Economic Development of less developed countries.

(c) Economic Development and International Trade and Investment, Role of Multinationals.

(d) Planning and Economic Development: changing role of Markets and Planning, Private-Public Partnership.

(e) Welfare indicators and measures of growth—Human Development Indices. The basic needs approach.

(f) Development and Environmental Sustainability—Renewable and Non-renewable Resources, Environmental Degradation, Intergenerational equity development.


UPSC Economics (optional) Syllabus Paper II


Indian Economics in Post-Independence Era:
Land System and its changes, Commercialization of agriculture, Drain theory, Laissez faire theory and critique. Manufacture and Transport: Jute, Cotton, Railways, Money and Credit.

Indian Economy after Independence:

A. The Pre-Liberalization Era:

(i) Contribution of Vakil, Gadgil and V.K.R.V. Rao.
(ii) Agriculture: Land Reforms and land tenure system, Green Revolution and capital formation in agriculture.
(iii) Industry Trends in composition and growth, Role of public and private sector, small scale and cottage industries.
(iv) National and Per capita income: Patterns, trends, aggregate and sectoral composition and changes therein.
(v) Broad factors determining National Income and distribution, Measures of poverty, Trends in poverty and inequality.

B. The Post-Liberalization Era:

(i) New Economic Reform and Agriculture: Agriculture and WTO, Food processing, subsidies, Agricultural prices and public distribution system, Impact of public expenditure on agricultural growth.
(ii) New Economic Policy and Industry: Strategy of industrialization, Privatization, Disinvestments, Role of foreign direct investment and multinationals.
(iii) New Economic Policy and Trade: Intellectual property rights: Implications of TRIPS, TRIMS, GATS and new EXIM policy.
(iv) New Exchange Rate Regime: Partial and full convertibility, Capital account convertibility.
(v) New Economic Policy and Public Finance: Fiscal Responsibility Act, Twelfth Finance Commission and Fiscal Federalism and Fiscal Consolidation.
(vi) New Economic Policy and Monetary System. Role of RBI under the new regime.
(vii) Planning: From central Planning to indicative planning, Relation between planning and markets for growth and decentralized planning: 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.
(viii) New Economic Policy and Employment: Employment and poverty, Rural wages, Employment Generation, Poverty alleviation schemes, New Rural, Employment Guarantee Scheme.


UPSC Law (optional) Syllabus Paper – I


Constitutional and administrative Law:

1. Constitution and Constitutionalism: The distinctive features of the Constitution.
2. Fundamental Rights—Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.
3. Relationship between Fundamental rights, Directive principles and Fundamental duties.
4. Constitutional Position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.
5. Governor and his powers.
6. Supreme Court and the High Courts:

(a) Appointments and transfer.
(b) Powers, functions and jurisdiction.

7. Centre, States and local bodies:

(a) Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States.
(b) Local Bodies.
(c) Administrative relationship among Union, State and Local Bodies.
(d) Eminent domain-State property-common property-community property.

8. Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.

9. Services under the Union and the States:

(a) Recruitment and conditions of services; Constitutional safeguards; Administrative tribunals.
(b) Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions—Power and functions.
(c) Election Commission—Power and functions.

10. Emergency provisions.

11. Amendment of the Constitution.

12. Principle of Natural Justice—Emerging trends and judicial approach.

13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.

14. Separation of powers and constitutional governance.

15. Judicial review of administrative action.

16. Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.


International Law:


1. Nature and Definition of International Law.
2. Relationship between International Law and Municipal Law.
3. State Recognition and State Succession.
4. Law of the sea: Inland Waters, Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone and High Seas.
5. Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human Rights and procedures available for their enforcement.
6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, Extradition and Asylum.
7. Treaties: Formation, application, termination and reservation.
8. United Nations: Its principal organs, powers and functions and reform.
9. Peaceful settlement of disputes—different modes.
10. Lawful recourse to force: aggressions, self-defence, intervention.
11. Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law—International conventions and contemporary developments.
12. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear nonproliferation treaty, CTST.
13. International Terrorism, State sponsored terrorism, Hijacking, International Criminal Court.
14. New International Economic Order and Monetary Law: WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank.
15. Protection and Improvement of the Human Environment: International Efforts.


UPSC Law (optional) Syllabus Paper – II


Law of Crimes:


1. General principles of Criminal liability: mens rea and actus reus, mens rea in statutory offences.
2. Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to abolition of capital punishment.
3. Preparations and criminal attempt.
4. General exceptions.
5. Joint and constructive liability.
6. Abetment.
7. Criminal conspiracy.
8. Offences against the State.
9. Offences against public tranquility.
10. Offences against human body.
11. Offences against property.
12. Offences against women.
13. Defamation.
14. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
15. Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 and subsequent legislative developments.
16. Plea bargaining.


Law of Torts


1. Nature and definition.
2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability; Absolute liability.
3. Vicarious liability including State Liability.
4. General defences.
5. Joint tort fessors.
6. Remedies.
7. Negligence.
8. Defamation.
9. Nuisance.
10. Conspiracy.
11. False imprisonment.
12. Malicious prosecution.
13. Consumer Protection Act, 1986.


Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law


1. Nature and formation of contract/E-contract.
2. Factors vitiating free consent.
3. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.
4. Performance and discharge of contracts.
5. Quasi-contracts.
6. Consequences of breach of contract.
7. Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance.
8. Contract of agency.
9. Sale of goods and hire purchase.
10. Formation and dissolution of partnership.
11. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
12. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.
13. Standard form contracts.


Contemporary Legal Developments


1. Public Interest Litigation.
2. Intellectual property rights—Concept, types/prospects.
3. Information Technology Law including Cyber Laws—Concept, purpose/prospects.
4. Competition Law—Concept, purpose/prospects.
5. Alternate Dispute Resolution—Concept, types/prospects.
6. Major statutes concerning environmental law.
7. Right to Information Act.
8. Trial by media.


UPSC History (optional) Syllabus Paper – I

1. Sources:

Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments.

Literary sources:

Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.

Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history:

Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization:

Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures:

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period:

Expansions of Aryans in India:

Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.

Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire:

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.

Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Govern-ment; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:

– Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs

– The Cholas: administration, village economy and society – “Indian Feudalism” – Agrarian economy and urban settlements

– Trade and commerce

– Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order

– Condition of women

– Indian science and technology

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750- 1200:

– Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and BrahmaMimansa

– Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism

– Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
– Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

15. The Thirteenth Century:

– Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success

– Economic, social and cultural consequences

– Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans

– Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban

16. The Fourteenth Century:

– “The Khalji Revolution”

– Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures

– Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq

– Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

– Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement

– Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture

– Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:

– Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat.

– Malwa, Bahmanids

– The Vijayanagra Empire

– Lodis

– Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun

– The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration

– Portuguese Colonial enterprise – Bhakti and Sufi Movements

19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:

– Regional cultural specificities

– Literary traditions

– Provincial architecture

– Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20. Akbar:

– Conquests and consolidation of the Empire

– Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems

– Rajput policy

– Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy

– Court patronage of art and technology

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

– Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb

– The Empire and the Zamindars

– Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb

– Nature of the Mughal State

– Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts

– The Ahom Kingdom

– Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:

– Population, agricultural production, craft production

– Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies

: a trade revolution

– Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems

– Condition of peasants, condition of women

– Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:

– Persian histories and other literature

– Hindi and other religious literature

– Mughal architecture

– Mughal painting

– Provincial architecture and painting

– Classical music

– Science and technology

24. The Eighteenth Century:

– Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire

– The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh

– Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas

– The Maratha fiscal and financial system

– Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat: 1761.

– State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest.

UPSC History (optional) Syllabus Paper – II

1. European Penetration into India:

The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India:

Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj:

The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.

(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including tele-graph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments:

The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:

Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule:

Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11. Other strands in the National Movement.

The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:

(i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau

(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies

(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics:

(i) European States System

(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.

(iii) French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.

(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.

(v) British Democratic Politics, 1815- 1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization:

(i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society

(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan

(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation-State System:

(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century

(ii) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy

(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism:

(i) South and South-East Asia

(ii) Latin America and South Africa

(iii) Australia

(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter Revolution:

(i) 19th Century European revolutions

(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921

(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.

(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949

22. World Wars:

(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications

(ii) World War I: Causes and consequences

(iii) World War II: Causes and consequence

23. The World after World War II:

(i) Emergence of two power blocs

(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment

(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24. Liberation from Colonial Rule:

(i) Latin America-Bolivar

(ii) Arab World-Egypt

(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy

(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:

(i) Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa

26. Unification of Europe:

(i) Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community

(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community

(iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:

(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991

(ii) Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.

(iii) End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.